The rehabilitation works on irrigation schemes in non-canal commanded area are somewhat different than the conventional improvement of canal commanded watercourses. Mostly, piped water distribution networks replaces the existing earthen channels. In case, the cultivatable area is at higher elevation than the water source, irrigation of fields is carried out by lifting the water.
Rehabilitation of irrigation schemes in non-canal commanded areas is an essential task for improving agricultural productivity and ensuring sustainable water supply. These schemes often rely on earthen channels, which are prone to leakage, erosion, and sedimentation, resulting in reduced conveyance efficiency and inadequate water delivery to the fields. To address these issues, piped water distribution networks are used to replace the existing channels. This approach reduces water losses due to seepage, evaporation, and operational reasons, and improves water control and delivery to the fields.
However, the rehabilitation of these schemes is challenging due to the topography and land use patterns of non-canal commanded areas. In most cases, the cultivatable land is at a higher elevation than the water source, which requires lifting the water to the fields. This is done through the installation of lift pumps, which can be powered by electricity, diesel, or solar energy depending on the availability and affordability of energy sources.
The rehabilitation of irrigation schemes also involves the construction of storage tanks, sedimentation ponds, and water treatment facilities to ensure adequate water supply and quality. These facilities help to remove sediment, debris, and contaminants from the water and store it for later use.
The rehabilitation of irrigation schemes in non-canal commanded areas requires a comprehensive approach that involves the participation of local communities, government agencies, and other stakeholders. The success of such schemes depends on the availability of technical and financial resources, effective management and operation, and sustained support from all stakeholders.
Components of Irrigation Schemes
To ensure efficient irrigation, irrigation schemes typically involve several components. These components include pumping devices to lift water from natural water sources, conveyance systems using PVC and GI pipes to transport water to fields at higher elevations, open channels to supply water to fields at equal or lower elevations, RCC or PVC pipes to connect fields with depressions in between, and nakkas and turnouts at water distribution points. By including these components in irrigation schemes, farmers can ensure that water is distributed efficiently and effectively, promoting optimal crop growth and yield.
Components of Irrigation Schemes generally include:
- Irrigation schemes involve lifting water from natural sources and ponds using pumps.
- Water is conveyed to higher elevation fields using GI and PVC pipes.
- Water is supplied to lower elevation fields using open channels.
- RCC or PVC pipes are used to connect fields with depressions in between.
- Nakkas and turnouts are provided at water distribution points to control and manage water flow.
Improvement of Tubewell Watercourses
The watercourses associated with tubewells in non-canal commanded areas often pass through uneven topography or loose soil, resulting in significant water wastage during its transit. This wastage, along with leakage and seepage, leads to heavy water losses. Renovation of these watercourses can provide a huge opportunity for increasing agricultural production by reducing this colossal wastage.
The process of watercourse renovation for tubewell irrigation involves complete demolition of the existing watercourse, followed by rebuilding or realignment according to the engineering design. Parts of the reconstructed watercourse are lined, and necessary water control structures are installed to improve the conveyance of irrigation water.
The benefits of renovating tubewell watercourses include reduced water wastage and seepage, improved water distribution to agricultural fields, and increased crop yield. Additionally, the renovation can result in reduced energy consumption and operational costs for tubewell owners. The overall impact of the renovation on the agricultural economy can be significant, with improved crop productivity leading to increased profits for farmers.
- The renovation of tube well watercourses requires technical expertise and careful planning.
- The process can be initiated by contacting the office of Deputy Director Agriculture (OFWM)/Assistant Director Agriculture (OFWM) or by downloading the application form from the OFWM website. Additional information can be obtained from provincial, divisional, district, and tehsil level OFWM offices.
|Watercourse Improvement in Non-Canal Commanded Areas
Procedure for Rehabilitation of Irrigation Schemes/Tubewell Watercourses:
The rehabilitation/development procedure for irrigation schemes and tubewell watercourses involves several steps, which are outlined below:
- Mobilization of shareholders: The OFWM staff mobilizes shareholders of each irrigation scheme/watercourse to organize water users associations (WUA).
- Registration of WUA: The WUA is registered under OFWM and W.U.As Ordinance [Act] 1981 (Amended 2001). The WUA executes, facilitates, monitors and supervises the works for their quality and is also responsible for dispute resolution, provision of land for irrigation scheme/watercourse right of way, and labour cost for installation of water control structures, lining etc. as well as material cost over and above the government assistance.
- Earthen watercourse construction: After the WUA is established, the earthen watercourse construction begins. Once completed, nakkas are installed and culverts are constructed.
- Lining of critical reaches: The lining of critical reaches of watercourse is provided subsequently to reduce water loss and increase efficiency.
- Technical assistance: The OFWM staff provides technical assistance to WUA for watercourse development activities. The Assistant Director Agriculture (OFWM) makes frequent visits to the sites to ensure that field staff is regularly supervising the works and prescribed standards/specifications are being followed.
- Completion report: The ADA (OFWM) submits the completion report to the Consultants for final verification.
Cost Sharing Arrangements
In order to promote the development of irrigation schemes and tubewell watercourses in non-canal commanded areas, the government has introduced cost-sharing arrangements with the beneficiary farmers. Under these arrangements, the government provides a certain amount of funds for the rehabilitation or development of the irrigation scheme or watercourse, while the remaining cost is borne by the beneficiary farmers.
In the case of irrigation schemes, the government provides a grant of Rs. 250,000, while the beneficiary farmers are responsible for the remaining cost of construction materials and labour charges. Similarly, in the case of tubewell watercourses, the government provides financial assistance for the installation of water control structures, lining, and other related activities, while the beneficiary farmers are responsible for labour charges and material costs.
This cost-sharing arrangement not only helps in reducing the financial burden on the government, but also encourages the participation of farmers in the development and maintenance of irrigation schemes and watercourses. By actively contributing to the cost of these projects, farmers develop a sense of ownership and responsibility, which in turn leads to better management and maintenance of these structures. Ultimately, this helps to increase agricultural productivity, improve water use efficiency, and enhance rural livelihoods.
Cost Sharing Arrangements includes:
- The government provides a grant of Rs. 250,000 for the rehabilitation or development of irrigation schemes.
- The government promotes the development of irrigation schemes and tubewell watercourses in non-canal commanded areas through cost-sharing arrangements with beneficiary farmers.
- Beneficiary farmers are responsible for the remaining cost of construction materials and labour charges for irrigation schemes.
- The government provides financial assistance for the installation of water control structures, lining, and related activities for tubewell watercourses.
- Beneficiary farmers are responsible for labour charges and material costs for tubewell watercourses.
- Cost-sharing arrangements reduce the financial burden on the government and encourage farmers' participation in project
Obtaining the Irrigation Scheme/Tubewell Watercourse Development Facility
- Obtain the application form from the office of Deputy Director Agriculture (OFWM)/Assistant Director Agriculture (OFWM) or download it from the OFWM website www.ofwm.agripunjab.gov.pk.
- For additional information, visit the provincial, divisional, district, and tehsil level OFWM offices or the OFWM website (www.ofwm.agripunjab.gov.pk).
- Fill out the application form with accurate information and attach all the required documents.
- Submit the completed application form and supporting documents to the relevant OFWM office.
- The OFWM staff will review the application and verify the information provided.
- Once the application is approved, the OFWM staff will provide technical assistance to the Water Users Association (WUA) for the rehabilitation or development of the irrigation scheme or watercourse.
- The WUA will execute, facilitate, monitor and supervise the works for their quality and will also be responsible for dispute resolution, provision of land for irrigation scheme/watercourse right of way, and labour cost for installation of water control structures, lining, etc. as well as material cost over and above the government assistance.
- The OFWM staff will make frequent visits to the sites to ensure that the works are being carried out according to the prescribed standards/specifications.
- Upon completion of the project, the OFWM staff will submit a completion report to the Consultants for final verification.